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The Boiler House

The Boiler House

Various types of boilers and fuels are discussed, alongside the best ways in which to get the best out of this important part of the steam plant.

All necessary associated boiler equipment is considered, including basic deaerator and accumulator theory. 

 

1. Introduction

An overview of boiler regulations, with an evaluation of fuel types and comparisons.

 

2. Shell Boilers

Overview of the different types of shell boiler with layouts, heat and steam release considerations plus pressure and output limitations.

 

3. Water-tube Boilers

Description of water tube boilers including operation, types and benefits; also, a brief synopsis on how they are applied to combined heat and power generation.

 

4. Miscellaneous Boiler Types, Economisers and Superheaters

An explanation of specialist boiler types and other specialist features.

 

5. Boiler Ratings

This tutorial explains the three most commonly used boiler ratings: The 'From and at' rating for evaporation, the kW rating for heat output, and boiler horsepower.

 

6. Boiler Efficiency and Combustion

A broad overview of the combustion process, including burner types and controls, and heat output and losses.

 

7. Boiler Fittings and Mountings

An overview of the necessary fittings, accessories and controls for a boiler from nameplates and safety valves to gauge glasses and level controls.

 

8. Steam Headers and Off-takes

This tutorial looks at steam header arrangements and other design considerations necessary for efficient warm-up, good steam quality and proper steam distribution from the boiler house.

 

9. Water Treatment, Storage and Blowdown for Steam Boilers

A look at the chemistry of water supplies including hardness and pH values.

 

10. Water for the Boiler

A steam boiler plant must operate safely, with maximum combustion and heat transfer efficiency. To help achieve this and a long, low-maintenance life, the boiler water can be chemically treated.

 

11. The Feedtank and Feedwater Conditioning

All aspects of the design, construction and operation of feedtanks and semi-deaerators, including calculations.

 

12. Controlling TDS in the Boiler Water

The need to measure and control the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the boiler water boiler water, and the methods used to do so, including closed loop electronic control with conductivity sensors.

 

13. Heat Recovery from Boiler Blowdown (TDS control only)

Boiler water is blown down to control the amount of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the boiler. This water is pressurised, hot and dirty, creating large volumes of flash steam and possible disposal problems. A heat recovery system can reclaim large amounts of energy during this essential process.

 

14. Bottom Blowdown

Factors surrounding the removal of suspended solids from the boiler, including valves, piping and blowdown vessels, with calculations.

 

15. Water Levels in Steam Boilers

The level of water in a steam boiler must be carefully controlled, to ensure good quality steam is produced safely, efficiently and at the correct pressure.

 

16. Methods of Detecting Water Level in Steam Boilers

The application of level controls and alarms, plus an overview of different level detection methods, including float-type controls, conductivity probes and capacitance devices.

 

17. Automatic Level Control Systems

A detailed explanation of on/off, modulating, two and three element automatic level control, with a comparison of pros and cons.

 

18. Water Level Alarms

The function of high and low level alarms. Low-level alarms will draw attention to low boiler water level and, if required, shut down the boiler. High-level alarms protect plant and processes. 

 

19. Installation of Level Controls 

The pros and cons of direct versus externally mounted level controls.  

 

20. Testing Requirements in the Boiler House

Requirements for regular testing will vary according to national regulations, and the type of equipment installed.

 

21. Pressurised Deaerators

The need to remove gases from boiler feedwater and the operation of a pressurised deaerator, plus calculations. 

 

22. Steam Accumulators

A complete overview of the need for steam storage to meet peak load demands in specific industries, including the design, construction and operation of a steam accumulator, with calculations.